How can I troubleshoot Wi-Fi connections in Windows?

1. Check your router or modem:

If the Wi-Fi connection is not working properly, the first step should be to ascertain that the router or modem is functioning correctly. Check the power cord, check any network cables, and ensure that the router/modem is connected to the internet. Additionally, you can try directly connecting a device to the router/modem with an ethernet cable to test if internet access is possible.

2. Restart the router/modem:
Once it has been established that the router/modem is functioning properly, it may be useful to restart the router/modem. This can often correct any temporary glitches that may be propagating. To do this, disconnect the power cord from the device, wait for at least 30 seconds, and then re-connect the power cord. Wait until the lights on the router/modem have stabilized before attempting to connect to Wi-Fi again.

3. Check the Wi-Fi password:
When trying to connect to a Wi-Fi network, a valid password must be provided for authentication. If the correct password is not entered, the connection will fail. Therefore, if the connection is failing, double-check the Wi-Fi password. It is possible to check the password on the router/modem status page by entering the router/modem IP address into a web browser.

4. Update the network adapter driver:
An outdated network adapter driver can often be the cause of Wi-Fi connection issues. It is recommended to check the device manager to ensure that the network adapter driver is up-to-date. If not, the most recent version of the driver should be downloaded from the manufacturer’s website and installed.

5. Disable/enable the network adapter:
If the driver has been updated and the Wi-Fi connection is still not working, it may be useful to disable and then re-enable the network adapter. This can often solve certain network connectivity issues. To do this, open the Device Manager, locate the network adapter in the list, right-click and select Disable. Once it has been disabled, re-enable the adapter by right-clicking and selecting Enable.

6. Reset the Winsock catalog:
The Winsock catalog contains network configuration settings. If the Winsock catalog becomes corrupted, it can prevent the Windows OS from making a successful connection to the internet. It is possible to reset the Winsock catalog by typing ‘netsh winsock reset’ into an elevated Command Prompt window. After completing this process, restart the computer and attempt to connect to the Wi-Fi network.

7. Use Network Troubleshooter:
Windows 10 includes a built-in troubleshooter that can detect and fix various network connectivity issues. To launch the troubleshooter, type ‘Troubleshoot’ into Cortana Search and then select either Network Adapter or Internet Connection. Follow the instructions provided by the troubleshooter and check if the issue is resolved.

8. Check if other devices have a stable connection:
If other devices in the same environment are having a stable connection, it is likely that the issue is related to the particular device experiencing the Wi-Fi issues. If no other devices are having a stable connection, the issue may be a result of an environment-specific problem.

9. Update the firmware on the router/modem:
Outdated firmware on the router/modem can also cause Wi-Fi connection issues. It is recommended to check the manufacturer’s website to see if the latest version of the firmware is available. If so, download and install the firmware update.

10. Reset the router/modem:
In some cases, a full reset of the router/modem may be necessary. This will, however, require all wireless networks and settings to be reconfigured. To perform a full reset of the router/modem, use a sharp object (e.g. a pin) to press and hold the reset button for at least 15 seconds and then restart the router/modem.

11. Use different security protocols:
If all else fails, it may be useful to switch the security protocol used. Most routers and modems support various security protocols, such as WPA2, WPA3, WEP, and so on. Switching between these protocols may help to determine if one of them is causing a conflict with your device.

By following these steps, you should be able to identify and troubleshoot any Wi-Fi connection issues in Windows. If the issue persists, it is recommended to contact the manufacturer of the device or router/modem.