Cryptocurrency regulations differ greatly in different countries. In some countries, like the United States and Japan, cryptocurrencies are regulated through existing laws and regulations. Other countries, like Canada and the European Union, have created specifically tailored laws and regulations to govern cryptocurrencies.
In the United States, cryptocurrencies are subject to regulations issued by the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) and are overseen by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). The SEC has issued guidance on how to comply with U.S. securities laws when issuing or trading cryptocurrencies. It is also responsible for policing cryptocurrency markets for manipulative practices, such as insider trading, market manipulation, pump-and-dump schemes, and other deceptive trading practices.
In the European Union, the European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) has issued regulatory guidance on how EU investors and financial institutions should comply with the relevant laws and regulations when dealing with cryptocurrencies. Similarly, the Canadian Securities Administrators (CSA) has issued guidance on how to comply with Canadian securities laws and regulations when trading or investing in cryptocurrencies.
Finally, in China and India, cryptocurrencies are heavily regulated and restrictions on their use are strictly enforced. In both countries, it is illegal to buy, sell, trade, or otherwise use cryptocurrencies. Regulatory enforcement can include fines and other measures including criminal prosecution.